Geography Topics For your Essay, Dissertation or Research Paper

Published by at November 1st, 2021 , Revised On April 5, 2022

Geography investigates some of the most pressing issues from around the world. When you think about geography, your brain starts to imagine maps, places, people, animals, plants, historical sites, religious sites, dark places, and the relationship between these elements.

For example, a recent study conducted by undergraduate students of Sydney university explored the relationship between consuming smashed avocados and how that affected the homeowner.

If you are studying geography at a university, we understand that it can be challenging to develop an intriguing, unique, and manageable topic. This article provides hundreds of free geography topics for your essay or dissertation so that you can choose the most suitable one for your needs.

Food and Nutrition Security Geography Topics

Nutritional geography or the geography of food is perhaps one of the most underrated and the least explored branch of human geography. It deals with the patterns of food supply, food consumption, and food shortages worldwide. Here are some unique and interesting topics in this subject area for you to consider for your essay or dissertation.

  1. Rethinking food security – Geopolitics, land grabs, and the rhetoric of food security
  2. Hunger in an era of global food security – A look into the challenges and opportunities
  3. Investigating the hunger and malnutrition that exists in Africa with a focus on any African country of your choice
  4. Evaluating the relationship between the human population and the world’s food resources over the last 20 years
  5. Discuss the reasons why more than 1 billion people in the world don’t have enough food each day
  6. Growing more food or maintaining the sustainability of the sources that grow food – What is more important?
  7. An investigation into the working and living conditions of the Indian farmers
  8. How do the farmers who grow food in South Asia end up going hungry themselves?
  9. The role of religion, family and culture history on food practices and nutritional status
  10. To what extent does poverty determine access to food availability
  11. Nutritional geography – History and trends
  12. A review of the geography of food consumption
  13. The Nigerian food system: Traditional and model
  14. How efficient is the world’s food supply – A critical analysis
  15. Why do we eat what we eat?
  16. The quest for food: Globalisation, economy and politics

Human & Political Geography or the Politics of Public Spaces Geography Topics

Human and political geography is an exciting area of geography that deals with population territories, population conflicts, distribution of population, adaption in modern society, concepts of overpopulation, the emergence of states, spatial administration structures, boundaries and frontiers, demographic transition, and more.

  1. A review of the deteriorating relationship between humankind and the environment
  2. The birth of territory from a historical perspective
  3. A companion to border studies – how nations and cultures are transforming by their dynamic, shifting borders where mobility is sometimes facilitated, other times impeded or prevented
  4. Exploring the new border geopolitics of the Islamic Republic of Iran and Azerbaijan.
  5. Different attitudes of political geography and geopolitics to Covid-19
  6. Political Geography: Society, state and territory
  7. A review of the framework of political geography
  8. Myths and realities of the Chinese political geography
  9. A discussion on the boundary narratives in political geography
  10. A review of the disorderly public and democracy from a political geography standpoint
  11. Distribution of the population of the world from the in the post-modern world
  12. Analysis of the overpopulation problem in India
  13. Identifying the regions of the recurrent floods, droughts, and other natural hazards in the world

Also read: Mental health essay topics

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Climate Change and Environment Geography Topics

Climate change and environment geography deal with a range of issues, including climatology, earth’s atmosphere, weather and climate, insolation and heat balance, atmospheric temperature and humidity, clouds, precipitation, hydrologic cycles, world patterns of rainfalls.

  • Understanding how past natural and anthropogenic climate variability has shaped our planet and human history.
  • Environmental inequalities of toxic waste release inventory facilities in India
  • Investigating the relationship between men’s dwelling and the environment?
  • An examination of the air pollution levels in Delhi (India)
  • Identifying the ecosystems in danger of collapsing
  • The new geography of contemporary urbanisation and the environment
  • People and environment: Behavioural approaches in human geography
  • The geography of Great Britain: Environment, people and economy
  • Examination of the man-environment relationships in geography
  • Assessing the role of climate in human life
  • Global warming – The myths and the realities
  • Geography and the environment in Russia
  • A discussion on environmental geography and natural hazards
  • The geography of climate change adaptation in South Asia
  • Examination of the world patterns of rain falls over in the 21st
  • Addressing biodiversity loss: Lessons from climate change

Economic Geography Topics

Economic geography covers a wide range of concepts of geography, including but not limited to natural resources, international business, textile industries, cities and commercial activities, trade and transport, green revolution, oil and gas, and classification of economies. Here are some topics in this area that you can consider for your geography essay or dissertation.

  1. Discuss the application of evolutionary economic geography
  2. A review of the relationship between economic geography and industrial dynamics
  3. The emerging empirics of evolutionary economic geography
  4. Geography of institutions and economic development.
  5. Why is economic geography not considered an evolutionary science?
  6. Economic development and economic geography in the Indus region
  7. Demography, geography and economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa
  8. New economic geography – Challenges and opportunities
  9. Russian Socio-economic geography: Current status, opportunities and challenges.
  10. Discuss the models of economic geography – Subtleties, valuation and appraisal.
  11. Oil and the economic geography of Saudi Arabia
  12. Decoding the wage gap: Services availability, economic geography and Heckscher-Ohlin
  13. Review of the Helpman-Hansom model – New economic geography in Germany
  14. The relationship between economic geography and multinational firms
  15. Investigating the relationship between geography, economics and religion – The case of Pakistan.
  16. A look at the politics and practice in economic geography
  17. The impact of religions and nations on economic geography
  18. The age of the electric vehicle – Geography of urban transportation

Geomorphology Topics

Geomorphology consists of physical geography, continental drift, plate tectonics, earth movements, weathering, mass wasting, and so much more. Here are some ideas for you to think about. You can customise any of the following topics according to any geographical location.

  1. Examining the relationship between sedimentology and geomorphology
  2. Use of soil geomorphology for field base geologic research
  3. Environmental issues in Africa and the contribution of geomorphological research
  4. Geomorphological research of large scale instability at Machu Picchu
  5. Rainfalls simulators in hydrological and geomorphological sciences; Benefits, applications and future research directions.
  6. A review of the recent advances in research on the Aeolian geomorphology of China’s Kumtagh Sand Sea

Oceanology Topics

Oceanology is an area of geography that deals with specific geographic locations. Here are some examples of topics to help you get started with your own essay or dissertation.

  1. Discuss the advances in oceanology and marine biology
  2. The potential impact of offshore wind farms on fishes and invertebrates
  3. Marine debris in green sea turtles along the Northern Coast of Taiwan
  4. An examination of the Sabaki Tilapia Aquaculture in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  5. Understanding submarine groundwater discharge and its importance in nearshore science
  6. A discussion on the iron degradation on a deep-ocean ship-wreck
  7. The impact of environmental pollutants on water quality
  8. Feasibility, functioning and future of MPAs in mainland Tanzania

Bio-Geography Topics

Biogeography covers a range of issues, including the earth’s energy budget, tropic levels, concepts of biomes, domestication of life, biodiversity, habitat decay, habitat conversation, and more. Here are some bio-geography topics to base your essay or dissertation.

  1. Addressing biodiversity loss: Lessons from climate change
  2. Analysing the European approaches to managed re-alignment
  3. Flooding and environmental challenges for Venice and its Lagoon
  4. Effects of climate and land change on river hydrology of Thailand
  5. Agent-based models of disease transmission in a small population
  6. Establishing the link between climate change and lawn growth
  7. A look at the Mediterranean ecosystem changes
  8. Applicants of airborne remote sensing to the conservation management of a West African National Park
  9. Air pollution and ground disturbance in the Russian Arctic
  10. An examination of the large scale coastal morphology: A review of Winterton Ness, UK
  11. The changing flora, fauna and sedimentation of the Pacific Coast of Mexico

Population and Human Geography Topics

Population and human geography is perhaps the most researched area of geography. It covers a range of issues including but not limited to economic activities of mankind, human races, population patterns, population growth, man-environment relationships, population programmes and policies, and so much more. Here are some topics for you to think about.

  1. An in-depth investigation of the population geography from a historical perspective.
  2. Humanitarian crises, population displacements and epidemics diseases.
  3. Long run cause of death series for national populations.
  4. International comparative work on the occupational structure and population geography
  5. The pressure of population on the world’s resources is increasing – A myth or reality?
  6. A look at the population distribution patterns in South Asia in the last century
  7. Discuss and critique population theories
  8. Can we grow enough organic food for the entire world’s population?
  9. Comparing the different data sources used by government, business and media for demographics
  10. Investigating the world’s population issues and proposing workable solutions
  11. Discuss the population challenges the world is facing and the policy responses.
  12. Analyse the economic consequences of the increasing population of India.
  13. To examine the world population patterns with a focus on countries such as India
  14. Discuss the most notable population theories
  15. Population policies for the next 30 years – A review of the existing literature
  16. Race and ethnicity facts and information

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Settlement Geography Topics

Some topics for settlement geography are listed below for you to choose from for your essay or dissertation. Don’t worry if you don’t like any of the below topics. Our consultants are here to provide specific settlement geography topics.

  1. What are the factors affecting the location of human settlements?
  2. Settlements come in many different sizes – Discuss the settlement hierarchy
  3. Identify and discuss various settlement patterns
  4. A review of the linear development in the Amazon rainforest
  5. Examination of the different settlement models employed around the world
  6. Ecological studies in the coastal waters of Kalpakkam, East Coast of India, Bay of Bengal
  7. A study of refugee settlement in regional Australia
  8. An evaluation of settlement geography with reference to India
  9. Rural settlement spatial patterns and effects: Road traffic accessibility and geographic factors in Guangdong Province, China
  10. The history and current trends of research on rural settlement geography in China
  11. A review of the history of settlement and urban development in Australia or the United States.
  12. A study of Afghan refugee settlement in tribal areas of Pakistan
  13. The past and contemporary key research issues in rural settlement geography in South Africa

Cartography Topics

Cartography deals with the maps, signs & symbols, drawing of profiles and depicting relief on the map, isotherms, isobar, isohyets, data analysis % mapping, scatter diagrams, and land surveying. Here are some ideas to inspire you.

  1. Discuss the importance of cartography in Geography
  2. Geospatial big data and cartography: Research challenges and opportunities for making maps that better
  3. Discuss the methods and techniques employed to create, maintain and use geographical information databases.
  4. Evaluate the use of GIS for producing and analysing map features
  5. Explore the new theoretical research trends in cartography.
  6. Examine the use of maps in the exploration of geographic data.
  7. How can GIS benefit research projects?
  8. A review of the contemporary American cartographic research
  9. A review of the history of map-making, cartographic signs and symbols
  10. Discuss the different types of cartographic symbols.

Agricultural Geography Topics

Agricultural geography focuses on farms, farm households, livelihood concerns, resource, policy and economic issues related to agriculture, fibre, fuel, food production, farming, and more.

  1. Discuss the new approaches to agricultural geography
  2. A critical review of crop efficiency and crop productivity in India
  3. A review of agricultural geography and the political economy approach
  4. To research the geography of agricultural change – Redundant or revitalised?
  5. To discuss the relationship between rural development, agriculture and geography
  6. Discuss the use and benefit of model farms in agricultural geography
  7. Use of economic and geographical methods of agricultural development – The case of China
  8. Using the understanding of agricultural crop geography in the United Kingdom as an assessment for agricultural literacy
  9. A look at the trends and challenges about the future of food and agriculture
  10. To discuss the importance of agriculture in ensuring food security for the world

Infrastructural Geography Topics

Infrastructural geography has become one of the most prominent branches of geography in recent times, thanks to the growing need to urbanise strategic geographic locations of the world. Here are some infrastructural geography topics for you to ponder over.

  1. A study of the infrastructures of life in the urban age
  2. Infrastructural citizenship: Spaces of urban life in Kenya
  3. Improving transport infrastructure – The persistent challenge of congestion
  4. Improving transport infrastructure – The life cycle of transport infrastructure
  5. Comparison between hard and soft infrastructure from the geography perspective
  6. Discuss the essential elements of urban infrastructure in the Indian sub-continent
  7. The material of city making – recognising the socio-technical nature of infrastructure in making the city
  8. Austerity as infrastructure – Exploring how the changing infrastructure of the state becomes a tool to govern social life in highly uneven and unequal ways
  9. The infrastructure of urban natures
  10. Social infrastructure and the public life of cities – An examination of the urban public spaces and sociality
  11. A study of the economic geography of the internet’s infrastructure
  12. To study the relationship between sustainable development and transportation infrastructure – Emerging challenges and trends.

Ethical Horseracing and Animal Protection Geography Topics

This one might surprise some readers, but ethical horseracing has been one of the most trending and intriguing areas of geography. Here are some ethical horseracing geography topics that might interest you.

  1. A look at the breeding and living conditions of the horses in Europe
  2. Horse as a vehicle for gambling – A critical appraisal.
  3. Using horses for human entertainment in Australia – The merits and demerits.
  4. An investigation into the reasons why many governments around the world are actively supporting jumps racing
  5. Horse racing vs greyhound racing – Is there a difference between the two?
  6. Exploring the horse treatment practices in the USA
  7. Social pressures in a changing social climate where animal treatment is more important than ever before – The case of the United Arab Emirates.
  8. The geography of horseracing in Great Britain
  9. The global horse racing industry – Ethical, environmental, economic and social perspectives
  10. The role of humans in preventing animal extinction

Glaciology and Glacial Geology Topics

  1. To study and understand the importance of glaciers for earth nature
  2. Climate change and its effects on mountain glaciers during 1990-2020 in Northern Pakistan
  3. Glacial erosional landforms: Origins and significance for palaeoglaciology
  4. Study the glacial processes and landforms
  5. Investigate the glacier changes and their relation to climate change
  6. The ice-age of Himalaya – A study of the glacier advance resulting from temperature change

Geography Topics you Should Avoid

The topic idea can either make or break the academic grade for an essay or a dissertation. You should avoid the following types of topics that;

  • Are too broad and lack focus
  • Are too narrow, and there is not enough literature available on them
  • Do not interest you
  • Fall outside the scope of applications of science and technology
  • Your supervisor does not approve
  • Cannot be addressed without costly primary research

How to write a geography essay?

Here are the steps for writing a geography essay.

  • Find relevant information according to your interests.
  • Develop the research question that needs to be addressed.
  • Make an essay outline with a table of contents for your essay, so you know what needs to be included in your essay.
  • Start the introduction to provide a background to the topic you are investigating.
  • Write the main body, and provide arguments and statements to base your opinion on.
  • End with the conclusion.

About Ellie Cross

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