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Sample Masters Psychology Literature Review

Published by at December 13th, 2022 , Revised On January 26, 2023

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Research Aim and Description

This thesis will investigate the effect of consumer attitudes on social media on psychological well-being. The virtual presence theory will have been based on Snapchat, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and tweets. Social media has initially been proactive, but the sense of familiarity contributed to a more significant preview than the level of use.

The more social media youngsters use, the more they presume to chat with others (perceived intimacy), and the happier and more connected they are. For the social, emotional, and cognitive growth of youth, social network sites (SNS) are essential. SNS like Facebook and Twitter encourage users to give themselves information, post images and interact with others.

The SNS has been supported in simulated worlds, encouraging social connections. People transfer their identities in virtual worlds by writing, exchanging, and specifying their desires. These experiences represent young people’s needs, such as friendships and peer input. The aim of SNS is to use it for youth and university students’ social capital, social connections, friendly communications, and sometimes mates. Social capital.

Search Strategy

In this research, the main emphasis was based on particular keywords i.e. social media, happiness, Social network site usage, Happiness, Psychological well-being, Life satisfaction, and High school students.

Literature Review

Sr. Summary
1 This research explores the impact on the psychological well-being of consumers’ views of social media. Snapchat, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and messaging were used for the virtual presence hypothesis. A survey was conducted to determine students (N = 352) how much they use social media, how personal their feelings are on every site, and how lonely and happy they are. The effects of social media use on depression and satisfaction are the mediation of perceived knowledge. Initially, social media use has been proactive, but as the intimacy was sensed, it was a more robust preview than the frequency of use. The more social media you use, the more you assume they are a way to engage with other people (perceived intimacy), and the more you are content and related to others. Outcomes and consequences will be discussed (Chae, 2018).
2 Adults with ASD do not very well appreciate the use of social media. Adult patients with ASD have common mental-related problems, such as depression. The current study investigated the correlation between SM usage and satisfaction in an adult population with self-disclosed ASD. Of the sample that used sm, 84 percent is gladder than those that used Facebook, the most popular website. Twitter’s second most famous platform did not have the same connection. Happiness and the use of SM demonstrated a four-dimensional connection: The happiness and the use of SM expanded together before the happiness came down. SM usage of adults with ASD can increase well-being and defend against the secondary mental health issues prevalent in this demographic, particularly with moderated use of Facebook (Ward, Social Media Use and Happiness in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, 218).
3 The use of SM is generalised: almost 89% of 18–29. SM is used by% to 72% of all adults. The advantages uncovered by using SM include enhanced social care, lower isolation, and enhanced living conditions. There are study findings of adverse effects like reduced well-being, jealousy, and depression. A fine-tuning calculation can tackle the apparent inconsistencies in the literature. A new survey of SM and social support research17 showed that most findings found that the form and duration of SM usage expected an improvement in awareness and social support, resulting in better well-being. The most widely used and researched SM is Facebook, Twitter, then the platform. These sites can draw users of various social types. Facebook users aim to sustain their known social network, write more emotional and interpersonal messages, and communicate with others (Hunt, 2018).
4 The present research re-examined the association between the use and satisfaction of social media by widening social media’s reach and rethinking happiness. In this analysis, channels other than Facebook were presented, and the differential results of each platform were tested. Since happiness is not entirely subjective, social contrast was hypothesised to impact only relative happiness, only one aspect of the total happiness. The usage of blogs, Instagram, and LinkedIn was favorable for social comparisons on Wave 1 (W1) when a two-wave longitudinal survey among Korean women showed that Twitter is negatively related. The use of LinkedIn was most closely related to social contrast.

In contrast, W1’s social relation projected relatively decent happiness in W2 negatively but did not forecast overall happiness in W2. W2 did not. Social media may cause us to conclude that social contrast enhances other people’s lives (Mitchell, 2013).

5 This work explored the correlation between social media, social support, and satisfaction. The research participants comprised 717 university students from the Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, who participated voluntarily in various departments and stages. To collect the results, the study included using the multi-dimensional scale of perceived social support and the subjective scale of happiness. Pearson’s Product Moment Association and Course analysis included the mathematical, empirical approaches. According to the findings, social media also used pessimistic and substantial expected social support, while social support has optimistic and substantially projected satisfaction. In comparison, social media did not directly forecast, but implicitly, satisfaction (Önder, 2019).
6 Multiple sclerosis (MS) can impede and isolate social engagement. Increasing engagement through online channels may help individuals with MS avoid possible physical, emotional and cognitive barriers. However, little study has examined the disparity between online and face-to-face contact in satisfaction. Our research explored the correlation between authenticity, anonymity, and gladness in MS-diagnosed individuals disclosing online social networks. The responses of 440 people were paired with the NARCOMS Registration and Upgrade Polls from the Davidson Social Engagement Study. Descriptive tests, T-tests, Pearson correlations, and a study of the multivariate regression of OLS were performed. Individuals indicated that, whether they are anonymous or known, they could be more frank about face-to-face encounters than online connections. Happiness in the relationships between people was correlated with sincerity or authenticity. For anonymous participants on the internet, we have found a negative correlation between happiness and honesty and no link between happiness and honesty if real names are used. For individuals with patient-specific and generic platforms, reliable findings have appeared. Our analysis means that anonymity cannot increase people’s satisfaction with MS. Systemic obstacles must be overcome to allow personal experiences (Eijkholt, 2018).
7 The use of social media remains increasing, with young adults in particular prevalent. It was then shocking that young people were loner than other older populations amid this improved interconnection and that the present generation might be the lonely one ever. We suggest that only image-based platforms (e.g., Instagram, Snapchat) can improve sound because of improved intimacy. Text-based networks, however, deliver no affection and cannot influence isolation (e.g., Twitter, Yik Yak). A mixed design survey is used in this study (N = 253) to assess this choice. Quantitative studies show that loneliness can be minimised, and pleasure and happiness with life can be improved depending on social media’s use and photos. In comparison, the inefficient use of text-based media emerges. Qualitative studies indicate that the effects may be focused on greater intimacy through social media based on photographs (versus texts) (Brooks, 2018).
8 increasingly identified in terms of image, performance, and notoriety.

The use of social media remains increasing, with young adults in particular prevalent. It was then shocking that young people were loner than other older populations amid this improved interconnection and that the present generation might be the lonely one ever. We suggest that only image-based platforms (e.g., Instagram, Snapchat) can improve sound because of improved intimacy. Text-based networks, however, deliver no affection and cannot influence the isolation (e.g., Twitter, Yik Yak). A mixed design survey is used in this study (N = 253) to assess this choice. Quantitative studies show that loneliness can be minimised, and pleasure and happiness with life can be improved depending on social media’s use and photos. In comparison, the inefficient use of text-based media emerges. Qualitative studies indicate that the effects may be focused on greater intimacy through social media based on photographs (versus texts) (Brooks, 2018).

9 Although not officially hypothesised, we have also asked about text-based social networking for study (RQ1). We have also tested in an analog way for the relations between text-based use of social media and the three result variables of concern with the image-based social media analyses. We started to verify whether the text-based social media score and each one of isolation, SWL, and happiness are associated. We observed a low positive association between this vector frequency and loneliness, although statistical significance was missing (r 1⁄4 0.098, p 1⁄4 0.118). Further, the SWL-and-happiness vector (both ps > 0.716) was not statistically correlated (Manago, 2015).
10 Professionals and news stories show the addictive and distractive nature of social media. Earlier retrospective experiments have demonstrated that interruptions impair primary tasks. This research investigates the effect of personal social media on project performance. The goal of this research is to study how the social anxiety, satisfaction, and isolation of university students describe their level of addiction to social media. The study was conceived as a model of correlation survey. Of 312 students from academic schools, 165 women (53%) and 147 male universities (47%) participated in the academic year 2017-2018 in Turkey. The knowledge was obtained using a type of personal information, a Scale of Addiction for Social Media, the Scale of Social Anxiety, the Oxford Satisfaction Questionnaire, the UCLA Isolation Questionnaire. To research, the association between student social media addiction and social anxiety, satisfaction, and loneliness levels, Pearson correlation and hierarchical regression analysis have been performed in SPSS. Results found that social media addiction and students’ social anxiety and soreness positively connect (Çolak, 2016).
11 Nineteenth-century utilitarian philosophers saw pleasure as the most outstanding value (‘usefulness’ in their words) and asserted a political priority in fostering the greatest possible happiness. Also, many of their peers shouted that pleasure is not healthy because it converts people into ‘satisfied cows’ and destroys social relations. However, the positive outcomes of contemporary psychologists appear to be more robust: greater understanding, improved fitness, greater well-being, and better social care. No scientific research has yet concentrated on happiness effects. In other research covering other subjects, however, signs can be found. This article collects the data available. These data are not explicit. However, they indicate some minor but significant results. The enjoyment of life appears to stretch consciousness to foster active engagement and facilitate political participation (E, Shackleford, , & Mazurek, 2019).
12 We thoroughly analyse associations between real-time expressions of people from all over the United States and several emotional, spatial, demographic, and health aspects. We do this by combining (1) an enormous, geotagged data package with over 80 million words created in 2011 by Twitter and (2) an annual survey of features from every 50 countries and nearly 400 urban populations. Among several findings is the taxonomy generation for States and cities based on their word-use similarity. We also measure the happiness levels of states and towns. We compare highly resolved population features with levels of happiness. Our studies demonstrate how social media can predict the rate of obesity and shifts in population size (Ward, Social Media Use and Happiness in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, 2018).
13 Because of the degree of correlational evidence between social media use and lower well-being, we performed an experimental analysis to explore the possible cause of social media. 143 University of Pennsylvania graduates are allotted, after a baseline surveillance week, randomly to either restrict Facebook, Instagram and Snapchat to 10 minutes or to use social media for three weeks, either per site, per day, or as usual. The group with reduced use reported substantial decreases over three weeks in isolation and depression relative to the control group. Both populations’ anxiety and fear of loss have declined substantially, indicating a change in self-monitory behavior. Our results indicate that restricting the usage of social media to around 30 minutes daily could increase well-being dramatically (Sedera, 2017).
14 One possible alternate theory is that using the reported trend of findings on more social media sites in general rather than image-based social media platforms in particular. If this is valid, though, we would hope to notice multiple connections between the use of textual social media and any element of isolation, SWL, and enjoyment. This is not the case from our analyses (see Text-based Platforms above). To investigate this alternative further, we have applied the five variables of dichotomous usage in all five social media channels to create a cumulative variable of 0–5 use in social media. The predictor for social media use in a particular MANCOVA has not demonstrated statistically meaningful ties to all three interest outcomes (all ps > 0.105). This is the factor between subjects. (Veenhoven , 2016).
15 People communicate with one another, and the internet has shifted radically to networks like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. Are we on these channels superior or inferior? Researchers link social media use to bad and good psychological results. Detailed reports have usually addressed the possibilities of addictive or problematic use of social media. Social presence theory is useful for clarifying what we experience in contact with others through digital technologies to understand how mediated social connectivity can provide emotional benefits compared to conventional social connectivity. The social theory of presence (Gunawardena, 1995) implies that mediated contact is considered “real” both instantly and intimately. All social media now have an imminent opportunity because. Digital media has no delay in correspondence and feedback (Hunt, 2018).

Research Question

Based on the literature studies, the researcher comes out with the following gap that needs to be filled by the research.

  • The use of social media avoids a decline in loneliness? OR The use of social media would project a rise in satisfaction?

Reference

Brooks, S. (2018). Does personal social media usage affect efficiency and well-being? Computers in Human Behavior.

Chae, J. (2018). Re-examining the relationship between social media and happiness: The effects of various social media platforms on reconceptualised happiness. Telematics and Informatics, 35(6), 1656-1664.

Çolak, T. S. (2016). Does the Use of Social Media Ensure Social Support and Happiness? International Online Journal of Educational Sciences.

E, K., Shackleford, D., & Mazurek, M. O. (2019). Social Media Use and Happiness in Adults. CYBERPSYCHOLOGY, BEHAVIOR, AND SOCIAL NETWORKING.

Eijkholt, M. (2018). Health, honesty, and happiness: Authenticity and anonymity in social media participation of individuals with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders.

Hunt, M. G. (2018). No More FOMO: Limiting Social Media Decreases Loneliness and Depression. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 37(10).

Manago, A. M. (2015). Social Media, Friendship, and Happiness in the Millennial Generation.

Mitchell, L. (2013). The Geography of Happiness: Connecting Twitter Sentiment and Expression, Demographics, and Objective Characteristics of Place. Plos One.

Önder, B. (2019). The Predictive Relationships between Social Media Addiction and Social Anxiety, Loneliness, and Happiness. International Journal of Progressive Education, 15(4), 73-82.

Sedera, D. (2017). Likes—The key to my happiness: The moderating effect of social influence on the travel experience. Information and Management, 54(6), 825-836.

Veenhoven, R. (2016). The utility of happiness. Social Indicators Research, 333-354.

Ward, D. M. (2018). Social Media Use and Happiness in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 21(3).

Ward, D. M. (218). Social Media Use and Happiness in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 21(3).

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