Sample Undergraduate Tourism Exam Notes

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Emerging Issues in the Tourism Industry Institutional Affiliation


In simple terms, tourism refers to a culmination of activities entailing visitation to places of a person’s interests. Until today, the tourism industry has adapted to social and cultural changes to fulfil visitors’ satisfaction (Cook, 2014). Since it is a competitive industry, customer well-being prioritises a corporate’s cutting edge over its competitors.

There are three types of tourism; Inbound, domestic and outbound. On the other hand, implementing planning policies will act as a parameter to evaluate, personal lifestyle, traffic congestion, infrastructure development, the need for planning policies, and conservation of ancient values, especially in urban tourism.

Analysis of Emerging Issues in Urban Tourism in Spain

In awareness, most tourism activities do happen in the cities of Spain (Horner, 2016). To enhance efficiency in urban tourism, a policy restricting visitation to several cities deemed worth visiting was passed to aggravate best sanitation outcomes, which in turn, increased urban tourism’s worthiness.

Planning policies aided in the provision of platforms that appropriately measured the significance of tourism. Consequently, there was a need for infrastructure development. When tourists flock a city, their first inquisition is usually directed to the availability of enough accommodation.

Effective planning strategies involve consistent collaboration with hoteliers to ensure that a perfect remedy for accommodation lapse is accrued; analyzing a distinction between non-mass and mass tourist accommodation. Until recent, about 46,000 hotels have scattered across Madrid. With regards, the establishment of a further 200,000 hotels become a possibility.

In subsequent, conservation of ancient values and preservation of artefacts has made cities like Zaragoza and Valencia to play host to some historical sites (Orser, 2016). In the spring of 1970, early tourism development, like Santander, played a key role in forming a second division.

Most importantly, literature was embraced to promote historical stature, through the employment of marketing and publicity. In apparent, regeneration was pivotal in uplifting the image meant to ascertain whether a particular image conformed to a sense of reality. Historical representations encrypted some element of uniqueness which in the long end, resulted in positive feedback. The most visited monuments in Spain are, Prado Museum located in Madrid and the Sagrada Familia Basilica.

Just like in the case of accommodation in urban tourism, the relationship between transport facilities and urban tourism is directly proportional. Moreover, many Spanish cities boasted of various foreign-based tour companies on the national scale, propagating a likelihood for constant traffic congestion.

The tour companies comprised Tours of Cosmos, the Alternative Travel Group, and Spain’s own, Specialist Mundi Color Tours. To some extent, tourist sites were constructed to suggest change and continuity to a person’s life; indicators of a lifestyle. At the same time, historical monuments symbolized the life story of the Spaniards.

Analysis of Emerging Issues in Urban Tourism in South Africa

In South Africa, the relationship between culture and tourism is directly proportional. Formulation of a good plan contributed to the establishment of effective problem-solving strategies. Nonetheless, urban tourism acted as a roadmap to economic recovery (George, 2016). Subsequently, the implementation of policies was a perfect blueprint for economic growth emanating from tourism.

Through well-structured planning, the tourism sector in South Africa employed initiatives that enhanced the diversification of culturally related products. Additionally, at both the local and provincial level, the policy environment acts as a contributing factor to the tourism economy. Urban tourism was configured to be an important element towards re-imaging Johannesburg, a city that was once destroyed by war and crime.

In other words, unlike in metropolitan Durban and Cape Town, Johannesburg discouraged the idea of embracing leisure tourism. There was a need to generate revenue to assist in the development of infrastructure; the building of modernized roads and schools. In equal measures, substantial funds were set aside to aid in the construction of new tourism infrastructure.

With time, there was an increase in the demand of urban historical sites and heritages sites to emphasize the sense of reality and originality. Cradle of Humankind in Gauteng provides a perfect example of just one out of the many historical sites found in South Africa.

In an overall perspective, cultural heritage management was important to the fact that urban tourism promotion ensued. Urban tourism’s complexity can be gauged by two important aspects of a person’s life; politics and culture, constituting to personal lifestyle. Diversification of the urban environment can also be referred to as urban regeneration.

In specific, cultural policy acted as a supplement for economic objectivity. Consequently, the growth of tourism in major cities of South Africa resulted from increased demand for urban attraction. The high population witnessed in urban areas was detrimental to the cause of traffic congestion that was witnessed in towns.

Examination of the Key Trends and Developments of Ecotourism

Ecotourism facilitates conservation of the natural environment through initiatives involving adoption and implementation. Notably, in Spain, tourism heavily depends on climatic change. To some, the temperate climate will, in turn, make Spain a lesser attractive tourist destination.

It could have a rippling effect on a country’s economic growth. However, the high temperature might entice some people who want to quickly overcome the atrocities experienced during winter. Climatic changes impose negative effects on natural resources that is prime to the sustainability of tourism.

For example, wildfires, on numerous occasions, have promoted destruction of wildlife’s natural habitat. For example the destruction of Laurens ford Estate, located at West Somerset (Balmer, 2016). In tourism, sustainability refers to industries’ commitment to expressing a zero or a low impact on local culture and the environment.

Concurrently, it promotes positive outcomes as it aims at generating employment for the locals. Until today, Spain has been engulfed with sustainability issues. Firstly, forest fires and unplanned tree cutting have attributed to deforestation. Secondly, poor farming practices have made it difficult to fully implement the government’s reforestation scheme. Lastly, air pollution results in climatic changes which put Spain in danger of desertification.

Even though the government’s initiatives are environmentally friendly, it is clear that there is a need for Spain to facilitate the invention of cleantech. On the other hand, mining has resulted in degradation, taking a major toll on the environment. South Africa also lacks inland water that ought to be used in efficient replenishment of natural resources.

Environmental awareness promotes tourists’ sustainability, especially in protected areas. It is appropriate for a person to be acquainted with environmental legislations as it enhances the concept of legal accountability.

In an interesting turn of events, a person will feel part of environmental sustainability. Environmental responsibility incorporates an element of reality. An evidence-based approach, such as acknowledging the importance of framing practice to sustainability is key. Protection of an area is the prime strategy aimed at protecting biodiversity.

Social-ecological approach acts a roadmap to maintaining maximum conservation of ecosystems- protection of the species’ habitat Interestingly, in most occasions, thousands of tourists tend to throng the same resort at the same time. Mass tourism attraction facilitates the generation of higher revenue. A larger number of tourists constitute economic growth. At the same time, it increases the rate at which youths are employed.

On the other hand, mass tourism facilitates a smooth flow of the government’s activities through a well-structured taxation system. Moreover, it bolsters an international link. Also, it can act as a supplement for regeneration and preservation of economic incentives. In equal measures, mass tourism can be disadvantageous in numerous ways.

Poor management in tourism can lead to an overwhelming number of foreign tourists visiting a destination. This, in turn, can undermine a nation’s cultural heritage and social cohesion (Obrador, 2015)

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Even though the tourism sector has helped create jobs, it is ideal for governments to come up with effective initiatives that promote job security. Unsurprisingly, most of the jobs in the tourism sector are normally seasonal. The jobs are of low level, and the possibilities of promotion are on balance.

Notably, too much focus is shifted to foreigners. However, there should be an urge to encourage domestic tourism, where locals will feel some sense of belonging. It will also ensure a consistent generation of revenue at a local level (Naidoo, 2016).


Cook, R. A., Hsu, C. H., & Marqua, J. J. (2014). Tourism: the business of hospitality and travel. Boston, MA: Pearson.

Horner, S., & Swarbrooke, J. (2016). Consumer behavior in tourism. Routledge. Orser Jr, C. E. (2016). Historical archaeology. Routledge.

George, R., Barben, T., Chivaka, R., van Vuuren, M. J., Knott, B., Lehmann, S., … & Swart, K. (2016). Managing tourism in South Africa (No. Ed. 2). Oxford University Press.

Obrador, P. (2015). Modern mass tourism.

Naidoo, R., Weaver, L. C., Diggle, R. W., Matongo, G., Stuart‐Hill, G., & Thouless, C. (2016). Complementary benefits of tourism and hunting to communal conservancies in Namibia. Conservation Biology, 30(3), 628-638.