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Sample Undergraduate Organisational Behaviour Essay

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Organisations, People, and Performance


Organisational culture, management, and the human resources of a business are all connected. Unilever is one of the top user goods businesses in the international economy. Unilever Company was started in 1930 established by the British based lever brothers and Dutch Margarine Company.

The case study investigates the Unilever Human Resource Management and what Unilever does for employee efficiency and organisational performance. Unilever is a much-known brand, and it has been working on its HR strategies for an extended period. The case study explains Unilever’s business tactics, human resource management, and how Unilever manages to keep the corporate environment better for its employees.

Keywords: Organisational culture, human resources, organisational performance.

A case study on Unilever

There are many business types globally, where there are many problems associated with the company’s progress, and different policies will allow other businesses to achieve their objectives. Unilever Company was started in 1930 established by the British based lever brothers and Dutch Margarine Company. Unilever has a wide variety of products, including food, beverages, canned foods, ice creams, personal care, and much more, which are the world’s most acceptable consumer trademark. The case study explains a lot of info about Unilever’s business tactics, human resource management, and how Unilever manages to keep the organisational environment better for its employees .

HRM Strategy Aligning With the Business Strategy

Many views go into establishing a go-to-market or business strategy. From brand messaging to product planning to sales dealings, active business strategies also depend on many people across various sectors .

The change of culture around the globe has a considerably large impact on individuals and firms. Every professional decision has a real-life influence, and Human Resource departments are exceptionally prepared to notify strategy and help staff manage the substantial changes. There are some reasons why it is so essential for HR to align with business strategies .

  • Work-in pattern with the rest of the company
  • Associating with business tactics gives Human Resource strategic attention and helps highlight objectives.
  • Considering the business’s strategic objectives will benefit HR invite and keep the right talent at the right stage.

Recommending and Critically Evaluating a Suitable HRM Strategy Aligned with the Business Strategy for Unilever

Unilever is a vast organisation that is widely spread, endorsing its dominance over its opponents, sustaining every potential forecasting along with the practical goals recommended by the administration. Business management understands that certain common aspects are ultimately growing the business manageability .

So how do Human Resources become part of the more comprehensive business decision-making procedure? It starts with making healthy ideas for the unit and strong morals for the whole business. Businesses with typical values are less likely to overlook the realistic effect of any strategy changes or huge decisions. Consider these steps as you start.

Align and Set your HR Objectives:

  • The way businesses are organised mostly depends on their present strategic goals and growth stages. Organisational structure may help in achieving the goals.
  • Maybe existing business objectives are more engrossed in worker maintenance or culture-building. When HR is united and up-to-date on these objectives, they can create strategic choices to meet the goals.
  • The role of HR in employee development situations is to both evangelise additional training and ensure teams are developed to keep pace with shifting needs.
  • The HR can act as an influential supporter and change representatives in applying business strategy, creating a structured employee commitment and success.
  • Formulate specific actions to hit the goals: Once you’ve affiliated and set objectives, it’s time to advance action strategies to perform your HR strategic visualisation. Focus on increasing and improving processes for engaging, hiring, employee progress, and performance appraisals.
  • Measure and track performance: With human resource association about data-driven objectives, HR leaders can confirm that decision-making is associated with strategic business goals and helps determine those goals. HR leaders can examine marketing, sales, and bookkeeping data to break down departmental management and better align with overall business objectives.

The business-level strategy of Unilever is essential to its overall functioning and market performance. It takes care of its clients by concentrating on demographics, lifestyle choices, tastes and morals, behavior characters, consumption patterns, and brand faithfulness . Unilever is a much-known brand, and it has been working on its HR strategies for an extended period. According to their ‘Work Smart’ strategy, the strategy will produce the efficient working and better time management. It will allow teamwork to operate the business at a better level. It will help to simplify the work within organisational procedures and employee commitment .

For Unilever to achieve a better HRM strategy and Business strategy, it needs to invest in better people planning. Present human resources units manage much more than appointing, onboarding, and profits. Unilever should improve its organisation’s arrangement and recognise severances across teams, sites, and skillsets with active views of your team. Allocate people where their skills will have a significant influence.

Workforce stability is essential for workers to live a suitable private and professional time. Flexibility is one of the features of work-life stability. In general, flexibility can be stated as the adjustment in the business’s arrangement, according to the state. Unilever can also apply some of the tactics that can make relaxed surroundings in the organisation. The method of flexibility cannot be made on the charge of organisational efficiency. It is acute to assign the flexibility strategy to survive corporate culture and structure .

Flexibility plan can be applied in Unilever by the following procedure:

  • The strategy should be made according to the people’s qualities and duties and operated according to the circumstances.
  • Flexibility can be functional in two types, schedule and situation. Schedule flexibility is the variation and easing connected to the working hours of the business.
  • It is compulsory to lessen the risk related to flexible conveniences. If a worker is working from home, the company needs to guarantee that he is still allied with the operations department he is working with.

The above-explained points about how Human Resource Management strategy is aligned with Unilever’s business strategy, and the company can overlook its policies and management and then choose which strategy to apply. According to , flexibility is a great strategy to start as employees feel more secured and cared for in the organisation.

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How Unilever can manage employee engagement in HR to contribute to high individual and organisational performance

Employment staffing in the industry contains two types: internal and external staffing. Occasionally, firms prefer internal staffing to external staffing to sustain the firm’s value and save budgets; meanwhile, hiring people who have had experience in other firms involves more funds. However, firms often do external staffing when they need somebody to replace the vital spot quickly .

According to , their global mental health movements’ determine awareness and education through mental well-being preparation, storytelling, and sharing are intended to confront the disgrace that stops people from seeking support. The mental health of employees is essential for their performance in the organisation.

Performance is a challenge for many businesses. It isn’t easy to accomplish the preferred performance levels. Hence Unilever needs to use Human Resource (HR) components such as employee engagement . The business has a significant dependency on the employees to run the business. That’s why the industry should increase employee engagement in the firm. Employee engagement is a psychological form that shows commitment and devotion to the firm, demonstrated by working well and continuing at the firm for a long time .

Employee Engagement in HR to Contribute to High Individual Performance

How to define employee engagement? There are two types of engagement

Emotional engagement: A state in which workers have strong emotional connections to their bosses, feel their thoughts count, and think that their bosses are interested in their progress .

Cognitive engagement: Condition in which workers know what is expected of them, understand their role and purpose, are given chances to surpass and develop, and are given information about enhancing their development .

As Unilever keeps growing and their management keeps growing, they need to provide better employee engagement programs and good facilities. These theories, points, and explanations should be considered while managing employee engagement in HR to contribute to high individual performance.

The engagement can be generated by achieving numerous psychological conditions of the employee. The business has to preserve the real work environment to develop it. According to , some psychological reasons can affect the engagement of workers:

  • Engagement represents more than job satisfaction, assurance, or inspiration.
  • Engaged employees have a sensitive attachment to their work and organisation, which leads them to expend more energy.
  • It links to Human Resource Management (HRM) terms such as ‘organisational citizenship,’ ‘working beyond contract’ and ‘unrestricted effort.’
  • Positive engagement can be useful to both the administration and different employees.
  • It is a multidimensional idea that may differ broadly between people, across offices, and from nation to nation.

Unilever HR department can also develop an app to get the idea of employee behavior and mentality. Workers will have a mood display facility where they would adjust their status to indicate how they feel after availing any assistance or services .

Employee engagement in HR to improve High Organisational Performance

Human Resources HR within Unilever provides a wide range of platforms and significances to allow strong business performance. Their HR accessing team is continuously cooperating with different firm’s shares to address business challenges and importance in a flexible, agile way. They work with firm leaders to convey their schema, champion change, and simplify culture and climate interferences through a well-defined but always evolving HR strategy. The vital objective is to develop the ability, form capacity, and increase the speed of Unilever’s values so we can still be fit to win in the market .

Defining a high-performance organisation

There is no clear or agreed definition of a high-performing organisation, but it can be considered by precision and coordination. Each person plays an essential part in bringing the firm forward, and everything that occurs at the individual, group, or departmental level contributes to the administration’s objectives. People realise their roles and how their efforts contribute to creating the desired outcomes .

High Performing Work Practices

A system or (package) of work practices leads to higher organisational performance as defined by . It is initially focused on bundling HR practices together. These practices help single workers’ abilities, Motivations, and Opportunities (AMO) to perform. They affect the quality of interactions between people and across groups, including relationships between workers and organisation; Justice, Belief, enclosure.

How employee engagement impacts organisational performance?

Engaged employees are the best coworkers. They work together to build a business, institution, or assistance and are behind everything good that happens there. These workers are involved in, passionate about, and devoted to their work. They know the potency of their jobs and look for new and better ways to achieve results. They are 100% dedicated psychologically to their work. They are the only people in a business who produce new clients .

Unilever should design a performance managing system that holds managers and employees responsible for the level of engagement they have presented to increase high organisational performance. Unilever should encourage a healthy work value in which directors’ objectives and values are allied across all work units. Firms that build a mutual respect culture by keeping achievement stories active will retain their current employees engaged and entitled the new arriving workers with this communicable spirit of work culture .

Like any other management choices, engagement decisions should be assessed in terms of their benefits and related costs, without giving more considerable importance to neither of the two, not to bias the decision-makers. Thus, Unilever also needs to study the cost side of engagement decisions.

Critical Evaluation of the Organisational Culture and Structure of Unilever and Assess its Significance in Determining Employee Behaviour

Critical Evaluation of the Organisational Culture and Arrangement of Unilever

Organisational culture, management, and the human resources of a business are all connected. Unilever is one of the top user goods businesses in the international economy. This firm’s progress is interconnected with its organisational culture and the kinds of accomplishments and plans leaders have applied over time. The characteristics of these workings also affect each other and the rest of the industry of Unilever. The firm is successful because of its managers’ overall support in organisational culture development. Unilever’s company culture adds to advances in other parts, such as manufacturing and human resources .

How are cultures formed? To change the cultures, it is essential to understand this question. An administration’s culture is formed as the industry faces external and internal trials and learns how to deal with them. When the administration’s way of doing business proposes an effective variation to ecological difficulties and promises achievement, those values are reserved. These values and practices of doing business are shown to new workers as the way of doing business .

Important factors in creating an organisation’s culture

The most critical factors in creating an administration’s culture include organisers’ values, preferences, and business demands.

Organiser’s Values

When industrialists launch their businesses, the way they want to do business determines the administration’s directions, the arrangement set up in the firm, and the people they employ to work with them. However, Unilever developed the business in 2000, the social involvement factor remains unbothered, and Unilever has communicated its promise to sustaining it .
Organiser values become part of the business culture to the notch to benefit the firm and become successful. By providing a competitive advantage, the values can be taken as part of the business culture and are shown to new fellows as the accurate way to do business .

Business Demand

While organisers certainly apply an authoritative impact over business cultures, the business features also play a part. Firms within the same business can sometimes have broadly contradictory cultures. Simultaneously, the business characteristics and demands act as a power to generate likenesses among business cultures. The business effect over culture is also essential to know because it may not be imaginable to replicate a firm’s culture in a different business, even though it may seem commendable to unknowns .

Organizational Culture and its Importance in Employee Behavior

Culture plays a significant role within an organisation. In the first place, it gives business personalities, which means it generates limitations among one business and others and entities. Further, culture could change individual self-interests into something more splendid, matching with an administration’s goal . Since culture controls the employee’s behavior by providing suitable values, it boosts the administrative organisation level. Lastly, culture behaves like an interactive instrument influencing workers’ assertiveness and behavior .

What are employee orientated and work oriented?

The employee and work oriented redirects the organisation’s viewpoint, prioritisation, and a complete focus towards either worker welfare or achieving work objectives. A business with a strong employee orientation redirects its idea of putting the workers forward of consumers and stakeholders. The administration viewpoint and shares greatly understand the modern era in which human investment has gained a tactical reputation. In an enormously work oriented culture, the administrations are likely to put an extreme burden on the workers, and substantial importance is placed on maximising the mission performance, even if it comes at the cost of the broader employee well-being .

Analysis of Unilever

The Unilever administration truthfully knows the worth of its human capital and prioritises worker pleasure and inspiration. Granting that workers are consigned with the stimulating goals, the administration takes care of their anxieties and avoids forcing them, which leads the workers towards breakdown.  The balance between the work and employee orientation is accomplished by:

  • Allocating the exciting goals and offering prizes to boost the work functioning
  • Offering workers with essential training, mentoring, and supervision to achieve the allocated objectives
  • Opposing the workers from making extra hours a common custom in the office.
  • Inspiring and training the workers to cope with the tension and time is vital for both developing the work performance and developing mental well-being.
  • Fortunately, talent administrators, human resources advisors, and even some squad leaders realise the importance of culture’s role within an administration’s inner strategy and how it impacts employee behavior .

Over time, the company’s fellows, even when they have diverse behavioral records, tend to undertake comparable actions and attitudes due to the administrative culture. In this logic, business directors face the challenge of discovery, if needed, collaborative chances for development and changing the values, ways, behaviors, and implicit customs that model the work responsibilities in the commonplace .

In Unilever, the workers need to provide the best determination to achieve the administrative objective. The organisational purpose is not possible to attain if the employees are not contented. To complete the target line, Unilever must have the highest competitive advantage. Since it is essential to maximise the worker’s capacity to meet the target line, it is very significant to maximise the employee’s determination

The overall situation is examined to provide precise business recommendations . The workers are cheered by the performance-based payment system and enhanced their performance for getting more reward. Therefore, Unilever should pay the workers for their outstanding performance and call weekly to develop the workers’ understanding. They should also pay attention to swift response and special commendation to the staffs for a more energetic working atmosphere. The rational wage system can understand the workers’ anticipated reward system. The industry and workers should uphold the equality that is the inner quality of relative business workers .

Critically Assess How Unilever Apply Knowledge of Personality and Emotions to Increase Employee Motivation

Some workers struggle to accomplish the utmost possible performance level in every organisation, while others choose to stand by to their minimal work desires firmly. Each person’s specific motivational strength powerfully determines these contrasting means of behavior. The latter is affected by various subjective causal variables of intellectual, dynamic, and purposeful character. Also, motivation is clearly shaped by organisational and foreign variables .

Employee motivation has always been considered the main problem for any business. Researchers have worked vigorously to present different motivational concepts, and they accomplished significant accomplishments in the 1960s and 1970s .


Motivation is used to involve workers in their work. Employees are the main components of all firms, whether private or government. Motivation means to be encouraged to do something. Hence, somebody who is thrilled or performed towards a conclusion is reflected as motivated. However, a person who feels no encouragement to perform is considered unmotivated . It is also described as creating “engagement in and determination with the learning task” .

Even though every researcher has different definitions for motivation, but they all agree on a single characteristic, it is the potency that forces humans to start an action and complete it by putting all of their energies to accomplish their requirements. Simple activities such as eating are motivated by hunger, and education is motivated by the aspiration for knowledge .

How does Personality Affect Employee Motivation?

Personality indicates the mixture of one’s qualities that make them different and of a unique character, and it formulates the base for individual differences among administrative members. Personality is being widely investigated, and most specialists have established a strong connection between personality and employees’ motivation . , explained some of the most leading concepts in this regard: traits theory, psychoanalytic, humanistic, and social-cognitive theories.

There is also some disagreement on the trait theories. have objected to trait theories for being too simpleminded. Some researchers discuss that even when one is said to have some traits, it is not always likely to be apparent. For instance, the source claims that the way someone responds to a given stimulus today might be completely different from how they react to the same incitement in the future.

Impact of Personality on Motivation

Studies have shown that people with emotional strength and those who rank low on psychoticism are more ready to be accessible to motivation practices . On the other hand, people with more violent natures tend to be unaffected by the organisation, even on things that are helpful for them .

According to , the relation between aggression and motivation is directly predicted in Vroom’s Expectancy theory, which recommends that and employees’ motivation and their definitive performance are affected by personality, among other aspects such as abilities, experience, and skills. Employees with less violent actions are likely to be engrossed in lenient and more qualitative features while choosing the rewards they wish . Emotional placements are a direct creation of people’s characters; hence, the results made in the evidence above prove a link between personality and motivation.

Emotions and Motivation

Emotions and motivation are not constant and stable features of the individual, as a mass of underlying variables impacts them. Even though they are always connected, the relationship between emotions and motivation may be examined from two viewpoints:

  • Emotional needs are part of the motivation (i.e., emotions affect motivation) and
  • Motivation development can generate different situations of effect (i.e., motivation impacts emotions).

Just as workers tend to concentrate on specific emotions and overlook others, organisational culture acts to form its institutions to explain and limit different emotional structures. Executives must be responsive that emotions produce certain disorders/disparities that cause tension and struggle. In general, employee behavior and decision performance are converging towards :

  • Either the need to live pleasant emotions (constructive attitude – fight for positive results) or
  • The need to avoid hostile feelings (precautionary perspective – lack of connection of the desire to prevent negative moments).

How Unilever can use the Knowledge of Personality and Emotions to Enhance Employee Motivation

As we all know, Unilever is the most known brand all over the world, and Unilever has applied innovative techniques to guarantee high employee motivation and ensure that their best resources will stay in business. By tracking employees ‘ motivation, carrying out assessments, or interviewing workers, Unilever can be taken as a model by small and large firms.

Unilever has done a lot of research on employee motivation and how it is affected by personality and emotions. They have done much training on this issue and helped their employees in better understanding these issues. The only problem Unilever faced was Trust and Belongingness. When employees felt empowered, they felt trusted, and when they were trusted, they felt belongingness with the organisation. Unilever has always looked over their employees and has always helped them in every field. They build personalities, take care of the employee’s emotions and keep checks and balances in the organisation.

Critical Evaluation of Unilever to Maximise its Contribution as an Organisation as a Future Leader


Unilever is one of the world’s leading traders of fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) across food, home, and personal product production. Unilever works in almost 150 countries in the world has around 300k people working for them. Their annual sale is nearly €52.0 Billion .

But when it comes to their Human resource management, the positive side also brings some negative issues. Human Resource of any organisation is the critical factor to predict the sustainable growth of a company. Unilever works in the best interest of its employees and customers, but sometimes when they focus on one side, they forget the other. Unilever has often neglected it Human Resources and employee management while keeping their focus on the consumer side. Many complaints were filed against their management system as the workers didn’t feel secure in the firm and were not motivated by their company’s efforts.


As a future leader of Unilever, my main priority will be to ensure the best environment and strategies for my employees first so that the customers could get the positive side of the company.

Improving Human Resource

My first change will be to hire a human resource professional involved in designing and implementing changes within the company to improve it. They offer a unique and creative perspective that leaders may overlook and play a dynamic role in classifying the proper authorities for new positions within the firm.

Focus on Growth and Motivation

My next focus will be on the growth and motivation of employees. Organisational management requires active processes to work with different groups and people. A leader must recognise other specialists’ weaknesses and strengths before making a design of action to develop efficiency .

Employees can be motivated by introducing reward policies on practical work, but it does not mean employees have to work extra hours. Efficient working will help them reach their goal and improve their efficiency . According to , works’ positive engagement has a direct relationship with the business’s total financial achievement. Thus, organisations must change strategies and policies that would help employee’s promotion and development.

Workforce Flexibility

Businesses respond to changes in the business atmosphere by fluctuating the number of people hired. As a leader, I would change work hours from standard 9-5 hours of work to improve employee efficiency. To enhance the organisational environment, I would help employees choose the task they think they can do rather than making them specialise in a specific field. According to The flexible firm model – Atkinson, it is important to give recognition to different groups and individuals of an organisation to improve workforce flexibility .

Organisational Structure

There are different organisational structures, and to get more acknowledgment in the world, I would recommend changing Unilever’s structure. Administrative structure matter because designs must imitate the main strategic concern, external market complication, and internal cultural needs for control, partnership, and creativeness. The structure must therefore Associate with strategy, smooth competitiveness, and strengthen the chosen culture.

Effective Communication

As a leader, I am responsible for conveying the message and communicating with my employees efficiently. Unilever can enhance their communication by developing apps that will help them engage with the employees. Instead of using an email system, they can communicate and get to know their feelings on social media platforms. Or Having a quick meeting or phone call can resolve a problem that might have occupied hours of back-and-forth emails .

Training and Employee Development

Dropping training and cutting everything together may seem like a good idea to save the company’s time and money, but this can ultimately go wrong. Forcing employees to learn their work on their own without help is extraordinarily unprofessional. If Unilever has this issue in their management, then I would recommend starting a training session for the new and old employees to increase their and the company’s productivity. There are several ways Unilever can help employee development: workshops, individual training, sessions, courses, observation or mentoring or even just increasing their duties. Proposing these changes will give workers extra skills to develop their productivity and efficiency .


Giving feedback to workers is very important to improve Unilever’s employee efficiency and contribution to the organisation. Reviewing the employees work and then providing feedback on how he/she can improve their work will encourage them. Maybe they would appreciate more guidance and little room for think broadly. Inquiring for feedback gives you a clear, instant means to help your workers progress and inspires a culture of open discussion that will allow for sustained growth over time .


Unilever offers a lot of products and services around the globe and is known for its lifetime achievements. Unilever keeps growing and has become people’s first choice. More than half of the world’s population uses their products and services. Their customer service and output production are tremendous, but no one knows what happens inside the firm. The case study explains how Unilever has worked for their employees and helped them become more productive. Unilever has some positive and negative points, just like every other firm. But they keep improving their work environment and training sessions for a more efficient workforce. Unilever has worked day and night to enhance its employee engagement strategies and is still working to build a sustainable environment for its employees.


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Frequently Asked Questions

1. Research: Gather information on organizational behaviour from reliable sources.
2. Outline: Create a clear structure for your essay, including an introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion.
3. Analysis: Analyse key concepts and theories related to organizational behaviour.
4. Examples: Support your arguments with real-life examples or case studies.
5. Editing: Proofread and edit your essay for clarity, coherence, and grammar errors before submission.

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